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The songs are evidently from different sources and of different epochs. There are two notes inserted in the MS. The first is in connection with No.

Aztec Poem by Cuacuahtzin (1410-1443)

In my copy of the MS, the title of this song is written twice, and between the two the following memorandum appears in Spanish: From its position and from the titles following, this note appears to apply only to No. The second note is prefixed to No.


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XIV, which has no title. It is in Nahnatl, and reads as follows: Auh inic motzot- zona huehuetl cencamatl mocauhtiuh, auh in occencamatl ipan huetzi yetetl ti ; auh in huel ic ompehua centetl ti ; auh inic mocuepa quiniquac iticpa huehuetzi y huehuetl, zan mocemana in maitl ; auh quiniquac iyeinepantla oc- ceppa itenco hualcholoa in huehuetl ; tel yehuatl itech mottaz, ynima ynaquin cuicani quimati iniuh motzotzona; auh yancuican yenoceppa inin cuicatl ychan D.

Diego de Leon, Governador Azcapotzalco ; yehuatl oquitzotzon in D. Frco Placido ypan xihuitl 1, ypan in ezcalilitzin tl Jesu Christo. This may be freely translated as follows: These songs are divided into three classes, the songs of the nobles or of the eagles, the flower songs, and the songs of destitu- tion. Directions follow for beating the drum in unison with the voices. It is also stated to be a native com- position, and from its contents, it was clearly composed by one of the converts to the Christian faith. Ninoyolnonotza, campa nicuiz yectli, ahuiaca xochitl: Manozo yehuatl nictlatlani in quetzal huitzitziltin, in chalchiuh huitzitzicatzin ; manozo ye nictlatlani in zaquan papalotl ; ca yehuantin in ma- chiz, ommati, campa cueponi in yectli ahuiac xochitl, tla nitlahuihuiltequi in nican acxoyatzinitzcanquauhtla, ma- noze nitlahuihuiltequi in tlauhquecholxochiquauhtla ; oncan huihuitolihui ahuach tonameyotoc in oncan mocehcemelquixtia ; azo oncan niquimittaz intla one- chittitique ; nocuexanco nictemaz ic niquintlapaloz in tepilhuan, ic niquimellelquixtiz in teteuctin.

Tlacazo nican nemi, ye nicaqui in ixochicuicatzin yuhqui tepetl quinnananquilia ; tlacazo itlan in meyaquet- zalatl, xiuhtotoameyalli, oncan mocuica, momotla, mocuica ; nananquilia in centzontlatolli ; azo quinnanan- quilia in coyoltototl, ayacachicahuacatimani, in nepapan tlazocuicani totome. Oncan quiyectenehua in tlaltic- paque hueltetozcatemique. Nic itoaya, nitlaocoltzatzia ; ma namechellelti y tlazohuane, niman cactimotlalique, niman hualtato in quetzal huitzitziltin.

Campa catqui in yectli, ahuiac xochitl ic niquimellelquixtiz in amohuam- potzitzinhuan? Niman onechicacahuatzque ca nican tlatimitzittitili ticuicani azo nelli ic tiquimellelquixtiz in toquichpohuan in teteuctin. Tepeitic tonacatlalpa, xochitlalpa nechcalaquiqueo oncan on ahuachtotonameyotimani, oncan niquittacaya in nepapan tlazoahuiac xochitl, tlazohuelic xochitl, 54 I. I am wondering where I may gather some pretty, sweet flowers. Whom shall I ask? Suppose that I ask the brilliant humming-bird, the emerald trembler ; sup- pose that I ask the yellow butterfly ; they will tell me, they know, where bloom the pretty, sweet flowers, whether I may gather them here in the laurel woods where dwell the tzinitzcan birds, or whether I may gather them in the flowery forests where the tlauquechol lives.

There they may be plucked sparkling with dew, there they come forth in perfection. Perhaps there I shall see them if they have appeared ; I shall place them in the folds of my garment, and with them I shall greet the children, I shall make glad the nobles. Truly as I walk along I hear the rocks as it were replying to the sweet songs of the flowers ; truly the glittering, chattering water answers, the bird-green foun- tain, there it sings, it dashes forth, it sings again ; the mocking bird answers ; perhaps the coyol bird answers, and many sweet singing birds scatter their songs around like music.

They bless the earth pouring out their sweet voices. I said, I cried aloud, may I not cause you pain ye beloved ones, who are seated to listen ; may the brilliant humming-birds come soon. Whom do we seek, O noble poet? I ask, I say: Where are the pretty, fragrant flowers with which I may make glad you my noble com- peers? Soon they will sing to me, " Here we will make thee to see, thou singer, truly wherewith thou shalt make glad the nobles, thy companions.

Auh nicnocuecuexantia in nepapan ahuiacxochitl, in huel teyolquima, in huel tetlamachti, nic itoaya manozo aca tohuanti hual calaquini, ma cenca miec in ticmamani ; auh ca tel ye onimatico nitlanonotztahciz imixpan in tocnihuan nican mochipa tiqualtetequizque in tlazo nepapan ahuiac xochitl ihuan ticuiquihui in nepapan yectUyancuicatl ic tiquimellelquixtizque in tocnihuan in tlalticpactlaca in tepilhuan quauhthya ocelotl.

Ca moch nicuitoya in nicuicani ic niquimicpac xochiti in tepilhuan inic niquimapan in can in mac niquinten ; niman niquehuaya yectli yacuicatl ic netimalolo in tepilhuan ixpan in tloque in nahuaque, auh in atley y maceuallo. Can quitlaz in huelic xochitl? Auh cuix nohuan aciz aya in xochitlalpan, in tonacatlalpan, in atley y macehuallo in nentlamati?

Intla y tlacohua in tlalticpacca gan quitemacehualtica in tloque in nahuaque, in tlalticpac ; ye nican ic chocan noyollo noconilnami- quia in ompa onitlachiato y xochitlalpana nicuicani. Auh nic itoaya tlacazo amo qualcan in tlalticpac ye nican, tlacazo occecni in huilohuayan, in oncan ca in netlamachtilli ; tlezannen in tlalticpac? So I gathered in the folds of my garment the vari- ous fragrant flowers, delicate scented, delicious, and I said, may some of our people enter here, may very many of us be here ; and I thought I should go forth to announce to our friends that here all of us should rejoice in the dif- ferent lovely, odorous flowers, and that we should cull the various sweet songs with which we might rejoice our friends here on earth, and the nobles in their grandeur and dignity.

So I the singer gathered all the flowers to place them upon the nobles, to clothe them and put them in their hands ; and soon I lifted my voice in a worthy song glorifying the nobles before the face of the Cause of All, where there is no servitude. Where shall one pluck them? Where gather the sweet flowers? And how shall I attain that flowery land, that fertile land, where there is no servitude, nor affliction? If one purchases it here on earth, it is only through sub- mission to the Cause of All ; here on earth grief fills my soul as I recall where I the singer saw the flowery spot.

And I said, truly there is no good spot here on earth, truly in some other bourne there is gladness ; For what good is this earth?

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Truly there is another life in the hereafter. There may I go, there the sweet birds sing, there may I learn to know those good flowers, those sweet flowers, those delicious ones, which alone pleasur- ably, sweetly intoxicate, which alone pleasurably, sweetly intoxicate.


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  6. Onihualcalac nicuicani nepapan xochitlalpan, huel teellelquixtican, tetlamachtican, oncan ahuacli tonam- eyoquiauhtimani, oncan cuicuica in nepapan tlazototome, on cuicatlaza in coyoltototl cahuantimani inin tozquitzin in quellelquixtia in tloque in nahuaque yehuan Dios, ohuaya, ohuaya. Oncan nicaqui in cuicanelhuayotl in. Niyolpoxahua in nicaquia ni cuicani, acoquiza in notlalnamiquilizo quin pepetlatiquiza in ilhuicame, nel- cicihuiliz ehecayotiuh in iquinalquixtia in ompa ontlatenehua in zacuanhuitzitzil in ilhuicatl itic, ohuaya, ohuaya, 4.

    Auh nohuiampa nictlachialtia in noyollo auh tlacazo nelli in amo ixquich quehua in tlazotototl, tlacazo ye oc tlapanahuia in ilhuicatl itic yyollo in tloque in nahuaque mochiuhtica, ca intlacamo teuhyotiuh in notlalnamiquiliz azo huclquinalquixtica ittazo in tlamahuizolli in ilhuicac ic papaqui in ilhuicac tlazototome ixpan in tloque nahuaque, ohuaya, ohuaya. Quenin ah nichocaz in tlalticpac? It is there that I the singer hear the very essence of song ; certainly not on earth has true poesy its birth ; certainly it is within the heavens that one hears the lovely coyol bird lift its voice, that the various quechol and zacuan birds speak together, there they certainly praise the Cause of All, ohuaya!

    I, the singer, labor in spirit with what I heard, that it may lift up my memory, that it may go forth to those shining heavens, that my sighs may be borne on the wind and be permitted to enter where the yellow hum- ming bird chants its praises in the heavens, ohuaya! And as in my thoughts I gaze around, truly no such sweet bird lifts its voice, truly the things made for the heavens by the Cause of All surpass all others, and un- less my memory tends to things divine scarcely will it be possible to penetrate these and witness the wondrous sights in heaven, which rejoice the sweet heavenly birds before the face of the Cause of All.

    May I be permitted to sing to thee, the Cause of All, there in the heaven, a dweller in thy mansion, there may my soul lift its voice and be seen with Thee and near Thee, Thou by whom we live, ohuaya! Ma xicaquin nocuic in tinocniuh xochihuehuetl inic tzotzonaya ilhuicacuicatl in nicehuaya, ic niquimellel- quixtia in teteucti, xochicueponi in noyollo izqui xochitl nictzetzelohuaya ic malitiuh in no cuicatzin ixpan in tloque in nahuaque, ohuaya, ohuaya.

    Occe al mismo tono tlamelaiihcayotl. Xochicalco nihualcalaquia in nicuicani, oncan icac in chalchiuhuehuetl, oncan chialon ipalnemohuani in teteuctin xochitl tzetzeliuhtimani, tolquatectitla, xoya- caltitlan, onahuiaxtimani in xochicopal tlenamactli huel teyolquima, cahuia ca ihuintia in toyollo ixpan in tloque in nahuaque.

    Ic motoma tocuic xochiahuia ca ihuinti in toyollo? Aoc ticmati inic nepapan xochicuicatl ic ticcecemeltia in tloque nahuaque quen ahtontlaelehuian ; tinocniuh ma nohuehuetitlan ximoquetzaya nepapan xochitl ic ximo- panaya chalchiuh ocoxochitl mocpac xicmanaya xicehua- yan yectli yancuicatl ic melelquixtia in tloque in na- huaque. Tleymach tiquilnamiquia can mach in nemian moyollo ic timoyol cecenmanaya ahuicpa tichuica timoyol popoloaya in tlalticpac?

    See a Problem?

    Ca mach titlatiuh xihualmocuepaya xiccaquin yectli yancuicatl ximoyol- ciahuaya xochiaticaya onahuiaxtimani oncan nicehuaya in yectli yancuicatl nicuicani ic nicellclquixtia in tloque in nahuaque. List to my song, thou my friend, and to the flower- decked drum which kept time to the heavenly song which I sang, that I might make glad the nobles, raining down before them the flowery thoughts of my heart as though they were flowers, that my noble song might grow in glory before the face of the Cause of All, ohu- aya!

    Another Plain Song, to the Same Ttine. I, the singer, entered into the house strewn with flowers, where stood upright the emerald drum, where awaiting the Giver of Life the nobles strewed flowers around, the place where the head is bowed for lustration, the house of corrupt odors, where the burning fragrant incense spreads and penetrates, intoxicating our souls in the presence of the Cause of All.

    Why did this block occur?

    Where shall we obtain the fragrance which intoxi- cates our souls? We do not yet know the various flower- songs with which we may rejoice the Cause of All, how- ever desirous we are ; thou my friend, would that thou bring to my instrument various flowers, that thou shouldst clothe it in brilliant oco flowers, that thou shouldst offer them, and lift thy voice in a new and worthy song to rejoice the Cause of All. Wherefore should we recall while the soul is in life that our souls must be scattered hither and thither, and that wherever we go we are to be destroyed on earth?

    Rather let us hide it, turn from it, and listen to some worthy new song ; delight thy soul with the pervading fragrance of flowers, as I the singer lift my voice in a new song that I may rejoice the Cause of All. Come hither, thou my friend, to where stands the drum, decked with flowers, gleaming with brightness.

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    Tlegannen in nicyocoya in nitlaocolcuica inic niquimilnamiqui in tepilhuan, in tlazomaquiztin, in tlazoteoxiuhme, in quetzaltotome, in moteyotico, in motleyotico in tlalticpac? Ca zan titlacatico ca ompa huel tochan in canin ximoayan inocapa in yolihu- ayan aic tlamian. Of what use is it that I frame my sad songs, that I recall to mind the youths, the beloved children, the precious relatives, the dear friends, famous and celebrated as they were on earth? Who now hears their fame, their deeds? Where can they find them? All of us are but mortal, and our home is there in the Hereafter, where there is life without end.

    Nicchalchiuhtonameyopetlahuaya, nictzinitzcanihui- caloaya, niquilnamiquia nelhuayocuicatla, nic zacuan- huipanaya yectli yancuicatl nicuicani, nicchalchiuhtlazo- nenelo ic nichualnextia in xochicueponallotl ic nicellel- quixtia in tloque in nahuaque. Zacuantlazoihuiticaya tzinitzcan tlauquechol ic nicyaimatia, nocuicatzin teocuitlatzitzilini nocuic nitoz ; miahuatototl nocuica cahuantimania, nicehuaya xochitzet- zelolpa ixpan in tloque nahuaque.

    Qualli cuicanelhuayotlo, teocuitlaquiquizcopa nic- ehuaya, ilhuicac cuicatlo nictenquixtia, nitoz miahuato- totl, chalciuhtonameyotica, niccueponaltia yectli yancui- catlo, nicehuaya xochitlenamaquilizticaya ic nitlaahuialia nicuicani ixpan in tloque nahuaque. Teoquecholme nechnananquilia in nicuicani coyoli- cahuacaya yectli yacuicatlan, cozcapetlaticaya chachal- chiuhquetzalitztonameyo xopaleuhtimania xopan xochi- cuiatl onilhuica ahuiaxtimanio, xochiahuachtitlan nihual- cuicaya nicuicani.

    Nictlapalimatia nicxoxochineloaya yectli yancui- catlan cozcapetlaticaya, etc. Nocontimaloaya nocontlamachtiao xochiteyolquima cuicatlan poyomapoctli ic ye ahuian ye noyollo, nihual- yolcuecuechahuaya, nicinecuia ahuiaca, xocomiqui in noyolia, nicinecuia yectliya xochitla netlamachtiloyan, xochi ye ihuinti noyolia. I, the sinfrer, polished my noble new song like a shining emerald, I arranged it like the voice of the tzinitz- can bird, I called to mind the essence of poetry, I set it in order like the chant of the zacuan bird.

    I skillfully arranged my song like the lovely feathers of the zacuan bird, the tzinitzcan and the quechol ; I shall speak forth my song like the tinkling of golden bells ; my song is that which the miaua bird pours forth around him ; I lifted my voice and rained down flowers of speech before the face of the Cause of All.

    In the true spirit of song I lifted my voice through a trumpet of gold, I let fall from my lips a celestial song, I shall speak notes precious and brilliant as those of the miaua bird, I shall cause to blossom out a noble new song, I lifted my voice like the burning incense of flow- ers, so that I the singer might cause joy before the face of the Cause of All.

    The divine quechol bird answers me as I, the singer, sing, like the coyol bird, a noble new song, polished like a jewel, a turquoise, a shining emerald, darting green rays, a flower song of spring, spreading celestial fragrance, fresh with the dews of roses, thus have I the poet sung.

    I colored with skill, I mingled choice roses in a noble new song, polished like a jewel, etc. I was glorified, I was enriched, by the flower-sweet song as by the smoke of the poyomatl, my soul was con- tented, I trembled in spirit, I inhaled the sweetness, my soul was intoxicated, I inhaled the fragrance of delicious flowers in the place of riches, my soul was drunken with the flowers. Zanio in xochitl tonequimilol, zanio in cuicatl ic huehuetzi in tellel in Dios ye mochan. In mach noca ompolihuiz in cohuayotl mach noca in icniuhyotl in ononoya in ye ichan ; ye nio loyontzin on cuicatillano ye ipalnemohuani.

    Ma xiuhquechol xochi, zan in tzinitzcan malintoca zan miqui huaqui xochitl zan ic tonmoquimiloa can titlatoani ya ti Nezahualcoyotl. Ma yan moyoliuh quimati in antepilhuan in anquau- htin amo celo ca mochipan titocnihuan, zancuel achic nican timochitonyazque o ye ichano. Ca ye ompolihuiz in moteyo Nopiltzin, ti Tezozo- moctli aca ca ye in mocuica? An ca nihuallaocoya onicnotlamati ayo quico, ayoc quemanian, namech aitlaquiuh in tlalticpac y icanontia ye ichan.

    Another Plain So7ig of the Mexicans. I alone will clothe thee with flowers, mine alone is the song which casts down our grief before God in thy house. True it is that my possessions shall perish, my friendships, their home and their house; thus I, O Yoyontzin, pour forth songs to the Giver of Life. Medium 1 sound tape reel ca.